• What is articulation?
    Articulation is the production of speech sounds in words to produce intelligible speech that is understood by a variety of listeners.

    Many children exhibit speech sound substitutions and omissions (deletions of sounds).

    Please refer to the speech sound development charts on the link for playingwithwords365 for more information regarding speech sound development and articulation errors.

    What is phonology? 
    Phonology is the systematic organization of sounds within language.

    Many children demonstrate difficulties with phonological processes. Many of the phonological processes which are often seen at the elementary level include: fronting, backing, stopping, final consonant deletion, gliding, vowelization, cluster reduction, initial voicing and assimilation.

    Fronting: When a student produces a sound typically made in the front of your mouth (t,d) in place of other sounds.
    Backing: When a student produces a sound typically made in the back of your mouth (k,g) in place of other sounds.
    Stopping: When a  student produces a fricative like (f,s) or an affricate (sh,ch) in substitution for a stop like (p,d).
    Gliding: When a student produces a glide sound (w,y) for a liquid sound (l, r)
    Final Consonant Deletion: When a student does not produce the final consonant of a word (e.g. foo/food).
    Vowelization: When a student produces a vowel sound in place of a liquid sound (l, r).
    Cluster Reduction: When a student does not produce both sounds in a blend (e.g. s/sl or b/bl)
    Initial Voicing: When a student substitutes a voiced consonant for an unvoiced consonant (e.g. gey/key).
    Assimilation: When a student produces one sound that is the same or similar to another sound in the word (e.g. bub/bug, kug/cup).

    Please refer to the link from for more information regarding phonological processes.